Galaxy operator's guide
Urbit's address space has 256 central nodes, called galaxies. By operating a galaxy, you have elected to participate in the network's infrastructure and governance. Operating a galaxy is an important job, and carries special considerations.
Because galaxies are so rare and important, it is critical that you treat custody of your keys very carefully. Never store your keys on a computer or phone. Galaxies are extremely valuable cryptographic property, so you should treat ownership of it similarly to the way you would treat a very large amount of Bitcoin.
What do galaxies do?
Galaxies are core network infrastructure and Azimuth PKI roots, with the ability to issue identities (also called 'spawning'). Each galaxy can issue 255 stars; the stars spawned by a galaxy will bear the galaxy's
@p, its pronounceable name like
~pel, as its suffix. For instance,
~pel can spawn
~sampel. These stars are referred to as your children, and you are their parent (or 'sponsor'). Each star can issue 65,550 planets, or individual identities. You can read more about Urbit ID here, and more about spawning in the Spawning Stars section.
You can distribute these addresses as you see fit, but as a finite asset, each star carries a monetary value. This value might be influenced by factors like its
@p or sigil, and your competence and reputation as a sponsor. Addresses like stars are owned as ERC-721 NFTs, which you can transfer and sell.
Note that your galaxy can spawn stars on layer 2 if you migrate your spawn proxy to layer 2 via Bridge. However, unlike a star, a galaxy can never move its ownership key to layer 2, in order to preserve its ability to vote. As a result, all non-spawning Azimuth transactions (voting, transfers, proxy delegation, rekeying) will always take place on layer 1.
On the network, galaxies perform peer discovery and connection assistance for their children. Simply put, this means that your galaxy tells other Urbit instances, or 'ships', where they can find your children so that they can communicate directly with them -- similar to asking a DNS server to tell you where to look for google.com. If those ships are unable to establish a direct connection with each other, your galaxy facilitates the communication by acting as a proxy between the two of them, relaying packets through firewalls and routers.
For this reason, availability is a critical necessity -- your galaxy must be online and reachable as consistently as possible. Downtime should be minimized to the best of your abilities, and the machine running your ship should have the requisite resources to handle these tasks. If you are unable to provide these services to your children, they will find somebody who can, by escaping to another sponsor.
You may have noticed that this means you could technically bear responsibility for the connectivity of ~16 million ships, but Urbit's network is still young, and the numbers aren't quite there yet. As it becomes necessary in the future, it is anticipated that these networking tasks will be taken over by stars, which should ease the burden on galaxies. There is no set threshold for this transition, but it is worth bearing in mind.
By default, all stars that you spawn will treat you as their sponsor. As outlined above, they will rely on you for networking. Sponsorship is a voluntary arrangement between ships; either party can sever this agreement at will. Sponsorship is recorded on the Azimuth PKI, so any modifications will take place through Bridge. As a galaxy, you do not have a sponsor, but can adopt new ships as a sponsor. You will need to log into Bridge and pay a small amount of ETH to accept the transfer.
Galaxies also sign and distribute software updates. Currently, Urbit OS is distributed from
~zod to other galaxies, and from there to stars and planets. In the future, this may change -- galaxies may push their own operating system updates downstream. Over time, Urbit may speciate into an ecosystem of many operating systems built on the same primitives.
In addition to day-to-day tasks, galaxies periodically convene to vote on documents and proposals for changes to the Ethereum contracts that govern the Urbit address space. Even if your galaxy has spawned all of its associated points, it still has the ability and duty to vote on governance decisions. Participating in governance will be described in detail later in this document.
By default, your galaxy performs network services for its children, as well as any planets they spawn. Galaxies occupy a convenient niche for providing other services to them; extending your existing relationship with your children to elective services is an obvious step.
Any services that might require a specialized dedicated host could be offered by a galaxy. Services like %btc-provider (Docker image), WebRTC STUN/TURN, object hosting like S3, or operating a layer 2 roller are potentially valuable for your residents and beyond. Neither stars nor galaxies have any specialized ability to deliver these out of the box -- your main advantages are your status as a Schelling point for your children, and making use of your deeper infrastructural capacity. However, an important consideration for providing digital services is that you should separate running them from your galaxy itself. Try not to run extraneous software on your galaxy to avoid burdening the host machine. For the same reason, don't host groups on your galaxy; very large groups can carry high resource costs. Use dedicated moons or planets to host groups or demanding services.
Since you already deliver software updates, software distribution is an obvious potential service -- as a highly available and trusted node, your galaxy is a natural choice to host desks with software packages, or even perform commercial distribution for developers.
A galaxy operator is also in a natural position to offer hosting services, both for planets and stars. If you have the relevant skills, you might make use of tools like Kubernetes and Docker to build an automated, scalable platform. Some existing providers and developers have open-sourced some of the tooling that they have developed.
Galaxies vote on decisions about important changes to Urbit's software and network. Your decisions can be better informed by remaining in dialogue with other galaxy-holders about potential changes, especially so that you can better understand the consequences of proposed changes that you vote on. There are several formal channels for staying in touch with other galaxy-holders:
- An on-network private group; see attestation instructions to delegate participation in this group to your planet
- A Telegram channel is available for out-of-band communication
- A galaxy-holder email mailing list
These channels are operated by Tlon; reach out to [email protected] to request invitations.
Buying a galaxy
If you decide to purchase a galaxy, it is your responsibility to investigate its condition. Evaluate whether it has been used to spawn stars, how many stars, whether they have escaped to new sponsors -- and if so, why. Ask your seller about lockups.
Galaxies rarely change hands, and are not usually listed publicly. If you are interested in purchasing a galaxy, your best bet is through solicitation through word of mouth. A good place to start looking is in on-network groups like The Marketplace, a public group where over-the-counter point sales are coordinated, or Cryptocurrency Forum, a public group related to trading cryptocurrency.
Because stars are very high-value items, it is advisable to use an atomic swap service like OpenSea to facilitate the transaction. Atomic swaps allow for trustless exchange of assets. Make sure you have funds in your receiving wallet to cover the transaction costs of accepting the transfer, and any proxy delegation or transfers you might want to perform. It is technically possible for a galaxy to spawn its stars after it has been sold on OpenSea, but before its purchase has been collected. This could potentially leave you with a galaxy significantly less valuable than what you paid for; treat this option with caution.
Periodically, you may see a 'naked' galaxy listed on a public market like OpenSea. Naked galaxies have already spawned all of their stars, which dramatically reduces their market value. You can easily check the number of stars a galaxy has issued by using tools like Urbit.live, Tirrel's network graph, and network.urbit.org (forthcoming). You should independently research the existing obligations of buying a galaxy which has already spawned stars; you will be expected to perform networking services for any active points that the galaxy is sponsoring. If this galaxy was a 'dark galaxy' that issued points without participating in the network, it may suffer from reputational damage, and its children may have escaped to other sponsors.
Receipt of Galaxy
Treat the receipt of your galaxy with an abundance of caution. Consider receiving your new ownership key under conditions of heightened security, and moving it immediately to a master ticket. You can make use of sharding your ownership key when transferring to a master ticket to allow for a multisig configuration, and storing the shards in separate physical locations. Use your proxy keys for day-to-day operations. Your master ticket code and the associated BIP39 mnemonic are equivalent to ownership of your point -- never share them with anybody or store your codes on a computer, and use your master ticket as infrequently as you can to avoid exposure or compromise. You can find more security guidance here.
To transfer an incoming galaxy to a master ticket:
- Send enough ETH to the same address you provided to the seller to cover transaction fees (this will likely come to a few hundred dollars).
- Log into Bridge with your wallet, and approve the incoming transfer of the galaxy. Note that you must pay a transaction fee.
- Once the galaxy has been accepted, go to the 'ID' section in Bridge to transfer your key to a master ticket.
- Download the 'Passport' containing your new private keys; never share these documents or store them on a computer.
- Approve the transfers to your new addresses; note that this process requires you to approve several sequential transactions that will need to be paid for by the address you have logged into Bridge with.
- Print the 'Passport' you were prompted to download.
- Store your passport documents somewhere very safe, particularly your master ticket.
Take advantage of your proxy addresses to delegate voting, spawning, and management privileges to different addresses than your ownership key (see 'Key management' section below). Urbit's HD wallet design makes it easy to keep your ownership key locked in a box while you perform typical operations with subsidiary keys, or re-derive those keys if you lose them.
You can load individual seed phrases of the addresses in a hardware wallet as recovery keys (Trezor, Ledger). If you prefer to purely use a hardware wallet, instructions for a hardware HD wallet analogous to a master ticket are also available in the docs.
Selling a galaxy
The value of a galaxy can be influenced by many factors, including whether it has been booted, whether it has spawned any stars (or how many stars it retains unspawned), how many of its children have escaped to new sponsors, or the aesthetic value of its name and sigil. Generally speaking, the less a galaxy has been used, the higher its value as a point. A galaxy is most valuable when it has never been used, or spawned any stars. Other less tangible factors that may influence its value might include transferable commercial relationships and its reputation as a network peer. Sales of galaxies are likely to be paid for with cryptocurrency, particularly BTC and ETH.
As a seller, you should evaluate the reputation and intentions of any potential buyer. Due to the critical role they could play, the purchaser should be serious about operating it, have a strong understanding of what obligations its purchase entails, and should ideally have relevant experience. Evaluate how potential buyers would contribute to the network, and how they could add value. If your galaxy has spawned stars, make their operators aware of a planned change in ownership.
Most galaxy sales take place privately. The best place to look for buyers is on Urbit itself, particularly in groups oriented around trading and digital assets, like The Marketplace or Cryptocurrency Forum. Using the network is beneficial both for casting a wider net than word of mouth, as well as weighing informal reputation on both sides of an exchange. It also selects for parties who are invested in the network and might provide informed feedback.
Galaxies that are sold publicly are typically listed on OpenSea, an NFT marketplace. This carries higher discoverability for potential buyers, allows you to auction your point, and acts as a trusted intermediary, in exchange for a 2.5% fee. However, this also precludes you for screening partners, and publicly lists the final price that was paid. Potential buyers may also be hesitant to make galaxy purchases on OpenSea, due to the possibility of stars being spawned between purchase and receipt.
Azimuth allows operators to delegate privileges related to interacting with the PKI to sub-addresses. This means that you can break up the ability to perform different tasks into different keys; for instance, using a different key to vote than you use to spawn stars. This has a strong security advantage, by allowing you to avoid using your ownership key to perform day-to-day tasks. For galaxies, these sub-addresses are as follow:
- Spawn proxy is used to spawn points; as a galaxy, this is an extremely high-value key.
- Management proxy can be used to set your networking keys, or to adopt or eject a child point.
- Voting proxy is used to sign votes in the Galactic Senate. See the Assigning a planet voting rights section below.
- Master ticket can perform each of the above, plus the ability to transfer ownership and set the other proxies.
Transferring your galaxy to a master ticket also creates each of the proxies. Log into Bridge with any of the proxies to perform the tasks associated with it.
Only your master ticket ownership key can transfer ownership of your ship or set proxies. You should avoid using your ownership key as much as possible; if anything compromises any of your other keys, you can use your ownership key to change them.
Booting a galaxy
Booting your galaxy for the first time has the same syntax as a planet or star you may have booted in the past; first, set your networking keys in Bridge, and download your keyfile. On your server, download the relevant Urbit binary, and execute it with the
$> ./urbit -w pel -k /path/to/pel-1.key -p 54321
It's good practice to delete your keyfile after you've used it. Specifying your Ames port is not strictly necessary, but is useful for network configuration and firewall rules.
Once you have booted your galaxy and spawned any stars, you will have an obligation to keep your galaxy online and provide sponsorship to your children. Spawning and transferring a point to someone else creates a duty to participate in the network; without your services, your children will be unreachable by other ships and will not receive software updates. Neglecting this responsibility may result in reputational damage and escape to other sponsors by your children.
Hosting a galaxy
You are strongly encouraged to host your galaxy in a high-availability data center provider like DigitalOcean, Google Cloud, Hetzner, or Vultr; alternately, co-locating your own hardware in a datacenter can give you a deeper level of control over your asset. Galaxies should also be run on a static IP address. Your galaxy is a critical node on the network, and must remain in communication with its children. Failure to maintain availability will impact the ability of network participants to communicate, and may result in damage to your reputation, or even lead to your residents 'escaping' to new sponsors. Availability is the fundamental responsibility of a galaxy operator.
Because networking is a critical function, it is advisable to shift the resource burden of auxiliary services onto other instances; moons are just as capable of running software as your galaxy. Moons are child instances whose keys are not tracked by Azimuth; your galaxy has ~4 billion available to spawn at your discretion. Moons might be useful for performing tasks that would otherwise burden your ship.
Keep an eye on the resources available on the ship's host, like memory and CPU. If your galaxy is consistently performing very slowly, consider upgrading the host machine. NetData and Zabbix are convenient open source tools for monitoring your server's resources.
It is advisable to have a separate sponsor for your day-to-day planet. If your galaxy sponsors your planet but becomes unresponsive, others may be unable to alert you.
Each galaxy can spawn 255 stars. Some of your stars may be unavailable for immediate spawning, because they are held by a lockup contract. Most galaxies already have their stars spawned to lockup contracts. Locked up assets are usually made available to you over a period of time, but you will still need to manually release them to yourself once they are available. Additional details for this process can be found in the Stars in lockup contracts section.
Spawning a star on layer 1 is an Azimuth transaction, so you will need to use Bridge to perform it. If you have assigned an address as a spawn proxy, you can use that to log into Bridge and carry out the transaction. Bridge is a browser-based interface for interacting with the Azimuth contracts.
In the Bridge main menu, select 'Issue point'. Here you can enter the
@p of the star and the recipient's address. This is a layer 1 transaction, so it will require ETH funds for the transaction costs in either your ownership key address, or your spawn proxy, depending on which is being used.
A galaxy can spawn a star on layer 2 if its spawn proxy is already in the L2 address, and the star has not already been spawned. Layer 2 does not impact your ability to sponsor or adopt a point. You can read more about how layer 2 works in this post.
Swapping a star for
$WSTR, or 'wrapped star', is a fungible token that bears a 1:1 correspondence with a star. This allows you to make use of your star in DeFi tools like Uniswap or smart contracts. A
$WSTR token represents 'a star', abstractly -- not any particular star.
$WSTR contract only works with stars that have [never been booted or issued planets. 'Unkeyed' or 'inactive' refers to whether a ship has set its networking keys -- a ship that has not had its networking keys set cannot have been booted. The contract accepts the transfer of an unkeyed star, and produces a token for the address that initiated the transfer. Alternatively, anyone who possesses a token can exchange it for a star. You can interact with the contract via its official UI at Star Market.
If you've ever used Uniswap, these processes will be familiar. To trade stars for
- Allow the site to connect to your wallet in order to let it see the stars that it holds.
- If you have more than one star, you can select one or more from a modal.
- Use the 'Review Swap' button to confirm your transaction.
- After confirming the transaction with your wallet, you'll see your new balance at the top of the page. Note that you will need to pay for the transaction fees.
In order to swap a
$WSTR for stars, the process is the same:
- Connect your wallet that contains
$WSTR, select the number of tokens you want to exchange.
- Confirm the transaction with your wallet.
- The star will be transferred to the same address as your funds. Note that you will need to pay for the transaction fees.
Trading in a
$WSTR token will give you the star that was most recently deposited into the
$WSTR contract. If you deposit your star, there is no guarantee that you will be able to exchange the token back for that specific
Stars in lockup contracts
Most galaxies have stars committed to lockup contracts. This means that they are not immediately available to spawn or transfer. On a set schedule or under conditions specified to you, stars will be available for release from lockup, and you will be permitted to withdraw them. This maintains the scarcity of address space, which makes an identity valuable and keeps the network friendly.
To withdraw an unlocked star:
- Authenticate into Bridge with your ownership key.
- Navigate to the 'Lockup Contract' menu.
- Under 'Locked', you can see the number of stars available to withdraw from lockup. Here you can specify the ETH address you want to withdraw to.
- You can only withdraw one star at a time, and you must fund the transaction. If you do not have the available funds, send ETH to your galaxy's ownership address (you can find this in the 'ID' menu on Bridge).
- After the star has been transferred, you will need to accept the incoming transfer via Bridge, which carries another transaction fee.
Once your star is withdrawn, it is owned by your galaxy's ownership address. You can log into Bridge using the galaxy's ownership key, and select the relevant star to perform Azimuth operations with it, like transfers and keying.
The Galactic Senate
An important privilege available to galaxy owners is participation in the Galactic Senate. In practice, this means periodically voting on proposals or upgrades to the Ethereum contracts. Votes take place via the Bridge 'Senate' interface.
The Galactic Senate votes on all changes to the Ethereum contracts, and passes resolutions by voting on proposed documents. These documents might be a statement of intent, recognition of fact, etc. Any changes to the way the address space or key infrastructure works must take place through this process.
Voting is always to accept or reject a proposal. Each galaxy can vote once on a proposal, which will pass if it achieves a majority, with at least 1/4 of all galaxies submitting a vote during the poll duration period, and at least half of those voting to accept. Proposals that do not achieve a majority can be re-submitted after a cooldown period.
Assigning a planet voting rights
Azimuth points have the ability to delegate privileges to sub-addresses, so that you can avoid exposing your ownership keys. Voting on contract upgrades takes place in Bridge, but you may find it more convenient and secure to use a proxy to perform the voting operations. For this reason, Bridge allows you to delegate voting rights to a proxy address, like your day-to-day planet.
This is a layer 1 Azimuth operation, so it will require ETH in your galaxy's ownership address to fund the transaction. If you don't already know the address of the ship you are delegating to, log into Bridge with its private key, select 'ID', and copy the 'Ownership address' field.
Log into Bridge, and select, 'ID', then 'Voting key'. Enter the ETH address that owns the point you want to use as a proxy. You will need to confirm the transaction and pay the relevant fees. Once the transaction has cleared, you will be able to vote with your voting proxy by logging into Bridge with its key. Note that the address that carries out voting must have funds to submit voting transactions.
To see past votes, you can look at the closed + voting tags on the Azimuth contract repository. This includes both contract upgrade and document proposals, along with discussions. Note that discussion may also take place elsewhere (e.g. in the private galaxy group).
You can also view a list of proposals that your galaxy has voted on in Bridge, in the 'Senate' menu. This contains a list of Keccak256 hashes linked to their original documents for document proposals, and Ethereum addresses for contract upgrades. To view the history of individual votes, you will need to examine the blockchain using a service like Etherscan.
You will be notified of upcoming votes in the Galactic Senate via the formal galaxy channels -- the private galaxy group on the network, and the galaxy mailing list. As time goes on, expect announcements and deliberation to shift more onto the network.
When it comes time to vote on a new proposal or document, you can do so within Bridge by authenticating and navigating to the 'Senate' menu item from the home screen.
The Senate menu contains separate submenus for document and upgrade proposals. Document proposals are text statements you can vote to approve or reject -- this might be a statement of intent that needs consensus, an announcement on behalf of the senate, or other measure that is not reflected in code. Upgrade proposals are specific modifications to the Ethereum contracts that govern the mechanics of Urbit's address space.
For a document proposal, by convention the text displayed in Bridge is a Keccak256 hash of the proposal text. You can examine the contents of the proposal by clicking the hash's link -- you are encouraged to validate the hash of the text manually, which you can do easily with an online generator.
Compare the output to the hash of the proposal in Bridge and make sure they are identical.
For upgrade proposals, the Bridge menu entry will contain the address of a modified contract on the Ethereum blockchain.
Active document and upgrade proposals in Bridge have 'Accept' and 'Reject' buttons. Performing either of these actions is a layer 1 Azimuth transaction and will require funds for transaction fees. If you are unable to register your vote due to funds, you can send ETH to your ownership key or voting proxy, depending on which you are using to vote.
Submitting a Proposal
To submit a new proposal for voting, you will need to interact directly with the Ecliptic contract. To submit a contract upgrade proposal:
- Deploy your modified contract to the blockchain.
startUpgradePoll()on the current Ecliptic with the address of the deployed contract.
For a document proposal:
- Publish the document somewhere that it can be shared.
- Generate a Keccak256 hash of the document's contents. You can use an online tool or do it yourself
startDocumentPoll()with the hash of the document.
Galaxies may publish their proposals via a pull request on the Azimuth Github repo, before or after calling the poll function. If the proposal is approved by the senate's on-chain votes, the change will be merged with the master branch. This is a conventional practice, but you may modify or ignore it. You can read more details here.
Future of Galaxies
The future of the network will be built by its owners and participants. Galaxy owners hold a major stake and act as leaders. By voting on contract upgrades and governance decisions, your judgment will impact the shape the project takes. By operating your ship, distributing points, and maintaining the network, you facilitate its growth and contribute value and utility. The influence you have over the distribution and governance of Urbit's address space conveys extraordinary potential and deep responsibility.
At a point in the future that it becomes infeasible for galaxies to perform networking services like peer discovery on behalf of all of their children, there will likely be a decision to delegate these functions downstream to stars, in order to distribute the load. What were once the core functions of galaxies will be lifted, but there will be other services to take their place in the future -- these may be fundamental network tasks like storing Ames packets, or commercial pursuits like renting out infrastructure, APIs, and blockchain services. It is a natural choice for the ships you spawn to do business with you, due to your default relationship and position of trust. History demonstrates that there are great opportunities in occupying a major nexus in a global network.
A galaxy might become a vertically-integrated provider that offers hosting, specialized OS forks and subscription services, or it may be a relatively hands-off piece of infrastructure that does little but push updates. Some galaxy operators may break away to establish their own networks; the strong security guarantees of cryptographic identity and a modified networking stack would allow for parallel, self-contained secure networks built on their own operating systems. In the future, very large organizations or even governments may find it useful to operate independent networks built around galaxies to take advantage of these strengths.Remember that once it reaches stasis, the only thing that is truly permanent is Nock -- everything else is system design and can be modified, albeit with increasing friction down the stack. We don't know what Urbit will end up being, but it needs your guidance to get there.